What is the Gas turbine engine [with Pdf] | What is open cycle gas turbine | What is closed cycle gas turbine

What is Gas turbine?

  • The gas turbine is a continuous internal combustion engine that work on principle of a Brayton cycle, In this flow of working gas is continuous goes through the following processes are Compression, Combustion and Expansion.
  • The gas turbine is founded by John Barber in 1791.
  • Gas turbines have a lower weight-to-power-developed ratio as compared to other power plants hence they are smaller in size as compared to other power plants.

Why gas turbines are used?

Gas turbines are used because of the following significances:-

1) It is smaller in size.

2) It has a Lower weight per power developed

3) No vibration occurs.

4) It can be used where problems of water availability.

5) Simple in operation.

6) Easy installation.

7) It occupies less space hence we can use it where the unavailability of a large area.

8) Low Maintenance.

Gas turbine diagram:-

Gas turbine engine
what-is-gas-turbine-engine

Classification of gas turbine:-

There are two types of the gas turbine:-

A) Open cycle gas turbine

B) Closed cycle gas turbine

A) Open cycle gas turbine:-

1) Open cycle gas turbine uses atmospheric air as a working gas & It is consists of the three main components that are Axial flow air Compressor, Combustor or Combustion chamber & turbine.

2) The air compressor takes the air from the atmosphere and compresses it to high pressure and temperature.

3) The compressed air from the compressor flows to the combustion chamber, where fuel directly mixes with the high-pressure air. Therefore fuel burning takes place inside the combustion chamber and the high-pressure hot gases flow to the turbine expands into the turbine and release into the atmosphere.

4) Due to high-pressure hot gases strikes onto the turbine, power is obtained at the turbine. This power also uses to drive the compressor, for that compressor and turbine are located onto the same shaft.

Net work obtained = Wn = Wt – Wc

Wt = work developed by the turbine

Wc = work to drive compressor

B) Closed cycle gas turbine:- 

1) Closed cycle gas turbine is consists of the four main components that are Axial flow Compressor, Heat source, turbine & heat sink.

2) The closed-cycle gas turbine uses gases which having more specific heat & good properties such as helium, argon gases that has properties better than atmospheric air, these gases are costly which needs a closed system for circulation. Hence this type of turbine knows as a closed-cycle gas turbine

3) As compared to open cycle gas turbine, in a closed cycle extra component is used which is a heat sink. The heat sink is one of the heat exchangers which absorbs the heat from hot gases after expansion from the turbine.

4) Also in this type of gas turbine, a Heating source is provided to heat the gas.

5) The compressor takes the gas from the heat sink and compresses it to high pressure and temperature.

6) The compressed gas from the compressor flows to the heating source, where the heating source increases the temperature of the high-pressure gas, and then this high-pressure hot gas strikes onto the turbine, expands, and flows to the heat sink.

7) Due to high-pressure hot gas strikes onto the turbine, power is obtained at the turbine. This power also uses to drive the compressor, for that compressor and turbine are located onto the same shaft.

5) The low pressure expands gas from turbine further flows to the heat sink which absorbs the heat from gases and makes it cool then this gases again flows to the compressor.

In such a way, this cycle continues again and again.

Working cycle of gas turbine:-

The gas turbine works on the Brayton cycle.

Brayton cycle is consists of two isobaric and two isentropic processes.

Brayton cycle ( PV & TS Diagram):- 

Processes:-

  • 1-2 :- Isentropic compression, Pressure increses from P1 to P2.
  • 2-3 :-  Constant pressure heat addition process.
  • 3-4 :- Isentropic / Reversible adiabatic expansion.
  • 4-1 :- Constant pressure heat rejection process.

Gas turbine efficiency calculation:-

Work to drive compressor = (Wc) = m Cp (T2-T1)

  • T1 = Input air/gas temperature
  • T2 = Compressed air temperature
  • Cp = Specific heat of air/gas
  • m = mass of air/gas

Turbine work = Wt = m Cp ( T3-T4)

  • T3 = Temperature of air pressure at entry of turbine
  • T2 = Temperature of air pressure at exit of turbine
  • Cp = Specific heat of air/gas
  • m = mass of air/gas

Net Work = Wn = Wt – Wc

=  m Cp ( T3-T4) – m Cp (T2-T1)

Heat supplied =  Qs = m cp (T3-T2)

Hence,  

Gas turbine efficiency = `frac{Wn}{Qs}` 

Gas turbine efficiency = `frac{Wt – Wc}{Qs}`

Back work ratio of gas turbine = B.W.R. = `frac{Wc}{Wt}`

Work ratio of gas turbine = W.R. = `frac{Wn}{Wt}`

=  `frac{Wt-Wc}{Wt}`

W.R. = `1-frac{Wc}{Wt}`

Methods to improve the efficiency of the gas turbine:-

To improve gas turbine efficiency, there are 3 methods as follows:-

1] Reheating in gas turbine

2] Intercooling in gas turbine

3] Regeneration in gas turbine

Advantages of Gas turbine:-

  • Can used where unavailability of water.
  • Less maintenance.
  • Simple operation.
  • Ease of installation.

Application of Gas turbine:-

The gas turbine is used in the following applications:-

  • Marine & transport application
  • In the Aircraft’s
  • In the Military applications
  • Turbocharging in diesel plants.

Thanks to:-

Gas turbine Image by PublicDomainPictures from Pixabay

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