## Temperature gradient: Definition, Formula, Example, Units, Symbol [with Pdf]

What is temperature gradient in heat transfer? For the given direction, the temperature gradient is the rate of change of …

## Thermal boundary layer: Definition, Thickness equation [with Pdf]

What is Thermal boundary layer? When the free stream of fluid at temperature ‘T_{\infty}’ approaches to the plate at different …

## Critical Radius & Thickness of Insulation: Definition, Significance

The critical radius of insulation & the critical thickness of insulation are the necessary factors in the case of insulation …

## Isothermal compression of ideal gas: Definition, Formula, Work, PV and TS diagram

What is isothermal compression? Isothermal compression is the process of reducing the volume of a certain mass of fluid, by …

## Thermal Time Constant [Heat Transfer]: Definition, Formula, Unit

What is Thermal time constant? The thermal time constant is the time taken by the system to undergo temperature change …

## Fin effectiveness: Definition, Equation [with Pdf]

What is fin effectiveness in heat exchanger? Fin effectiveness is the ratio of the rate of heat transfer by use …

## Biot number: Definition, Formula, Significance, For sphere, Lumped capacitance [with Pdf]

What is biot number? Biot number is the ratio of internal conductive resistance within the body to the external convective …

## Fouling factor in heat exchanger: Definition, Formula, Units [with Pdf]

Before discussing the fouling factor let’s know, what is fouling? What is fouling? Fouling is the phenomenon of deposition of …

## Free Convection vs Forced Convection [8 key differences]

In free or natural convection, the fluid molecules move due to the density variation caused by a temperature gradient. Thus …

## Fin efficiency: Definition, Equation, Formula with Pdf

Before knowing about fin efficiency, let’s have brief instructions about the fins. What is fin? Fins are the extended surfaces …