The main eight components of the IC engine are as follows:-
- Inlet valve
- Exhaust valve
- Spark plug/Fuel injector
1] Piston:- Piston plays the main role in the ic engine. The piston linearly moves from the TDC (Top dead center) to BDC (Bottom dead center) inside the cylinder to perform different work. There are piston rings are mounted on the piston which helps in sealing the combustion gases as well as to transfer of heat from piston to cylinder.
The piston is connected to the connecting rod with the help of a gudgeon pin. During the suction stroke, the piston helps to take fresh charge inside of the chamber, during compression stroke helps to compress the charge while during the exhaust stroke helps to remove the burnt gases from the chamber through an engine exhaust valve.
2] Cylinder:- The cylinder is the part in which the piston moves. The combustion takes place inside the cylinder. During the suction stroke, the charge enters into the cylinder.
The inlet valve, exhaust valve, fuel injector/spark plug are mounted on the cylinder head.
3] Inlet valve:- The inlet valve is located at the engine intake port, from where the fresh charge enters inside the cylinder.
The inlet valve is open and closed by the rotation of the camshaft. The Inlet valve is in the open position during the suction stroke and remains closed during other strokes.
4] Exhaust valve:- The exhaust valve is located at the engine exhaust port, from where the exhaust gases are released to the exhaust manifold.
The opening and closing of the exhaust valve is also done by the rotation of the camshaft. The exhaust valve is in the open position only during the exhaust stroke and remains closed during the other strokes.
5] Spark plug/Fuel injector:- The petrol engines have spark plug while the diesel engines have the fuel injector.
The fuel injector is connected to the fuel intake. It sprays the fuel droplets inside the chamber after the air is compressed by the piston.
The spark plug is connected to the vehicle battery. When the piston compresses the air-fuel mixtures inside the cylinder, the spark plug produces the spark to ignite the fuel.
6] Crank:- One end of the crank is connected to the connecting rod and another end is connected to the crankshaft. The crank and connecting rod are helps in converting the linear motion of the piston into the rotary motion of the crankshaft.
7] Camshaft:- The camshaft is an engine inlet and exhaust valve operating mechanism. The camshaft is driven by the crankshaft through a timing belt or timing chain.
8] Crankshaft:- Crankshaft is a shaft that rotated due to the rotary motion of the crank.
The flywheel is located at one end of the crankshaft as well as another end has a pulley to transfer the power to the camshaft using a timing chain or timing belt.