Hydraulic Braking system: Definition, Principle, Diagram, Components, Working, Application, Advantages [with Pdf]

What is Hydraulic Braking System?

  • A hydraulic braking system in automobiles is the brake operating system which uses fluid for their operation. It is highly efficient braking system.
  • It is self-lubrication system hence no external lubrication is required.
  • In this system, With less effort, we can achieve high braking force.

Hydraulic Braking system working principle:

The hydraulic braking system works on the principle of Pascal’s Law.

PASCAL’S LAW:-  The pascal law states that “Pressure at any point in a static fluid is equal in all directions”.

Hence such pascal’s law is used in the hydraulic braking system to apply the brake.

Hydraulic braking system diagram:

Hydraulic braking system diagram

Hydraulic Braking system construction:

A hydraulic braking system in Automobile consists of the following components:-

  1. Pedal
  2. Master Cylinder
  3. Oil Reservoir
  4. Cylinder 2
  5. Brake Shoes
  6. Pipeline

1)PEDAL:- Brake pedal is pivoted and connected from middle to piston rod.   When the driver presses the pedal, the piston presses the fluid inside the master cylinder.

2)MASTER CYLINDER:- It consists of piston, oil & return spring.  When the driver presses the pedal, the piston presses the oil inside the master cylinder.

The oil reservoir is connected to the master cylinder which maintains the oil quantity inside the system.

Return spring is used to maintain pressure on the piston therefore when the driver releases the brake pedal, the piston comes to its original position.

3) OIL RESERVOIR:- It maintains the oil quantity inside the system.

4) CYLINDER 2:- It is located inside the wheel drum. It consists of the two-piston & Piston rods are connected to the shoes. When oil comes from the master cylinder, oil enters into cylinder 2 hence both pistons expand.

5) BRAKE SHOES:- There are 2 brake shoes used in the brake drum. Both piston rods are connected to one end of the shoes. Other ends of the shoes are hinged Brake shoes have friction lining on the outer surface.

drum brake

Hence when the driver presses the pedal, the pistons of cylinder 2 expands therefore Resulting in brake shoes expands therefore due to friction between shoes & brake drum, Wheel stops.

The shoes are connected with the return spring. Therefore When the driver releases the clutch pedal, Pressure on oil releases hence shoes are coming to their original position due to spring.

6) PIPELINE:- It is used to flow oil from master cylinder to cylinder 2.

Hydraulic Braking system working:

Let’s see the Hydraulic Braking system working in stepwise:-

1) When the driver presses the brake pedal, the piston presses the oil inside the master cylinder.

2) Oil flows from the master cylinder to cylinder 2 through a pipeline.

3) Now, Oil enters inside the cylinder 2. Hence both piston expands due to oil pressure.

4) Due to piston movement, brake shoes expand inside the brake drum.

Therefore due to friction between shoes & brake drum, the wheel stops.

Hydraulic Braking system advantages:

Hydraulic Braking System has following advantages:-

  1. Less efforts required
  2. It is a self-lubrication system hence no external lubrication is required.
  3. Simple Construction
  4. Smooth Operation
  5. Losses due to friction are very less.

Hydraulic Braking system applications:

The hydraulic braking system has many applications such as:-

  1. Buses
  2. Truck
  3. Car

Difference between hydraulic and mechanical brakes

Sr. No.MECHANICAL BRAKESHYDRAULIC BRAKES
1Brakes are Less PowerfulBrakes are more Powerful
2External Lubrication RequireNo External Lubrication is required as it is a self-lubrication system.
3More efforts are required to an operator to apply BrakeLess effort is required for an operator to apply Brake.
4Less costlyIt is costlier.
5Friction Losses are moreFriction losses are less
Difference-between-hydraulic-and-mechanical-brakes

Read also about the other brakes:

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